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Open AccessArticle
Feasibility of Ultra-Low-Dose CT for Bronchoscopy of Peripheral Lung Lesions
Medicina 2020, 56(9), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56090479 (registering DOI) - 19 Sep 2020
Abstract
Background and objectives: Thin-section computed tomography (CT) is essential for identifying small bronchi during bronchoscopy using radial endobronchial ultrasound. Some patients should receive an additional CT for a thin-section image. We performed a retrospective study with a prospectively collected database to identify [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Thin-section computed tomography (CT) is essential for identifying small bronchi during bronchoscopy using radial endobronchial ultrasound. Some patients should receive an additional CT for a thin-section image. We performed a retrospective study with a prospectively collected database to identify the optimal radiation dose for thin-section CT during peripheral bronchoscopy. Materials and Methods: In total, 91 patients with peripheral lung lesions underwent thin-section CT (both standard CT as a reference and ultra-low-dose CT (ultra-LDCT)). The patients were randomly assigned to one of four groups according to the ultra-LDCT parameters: group 1 = 120 kVp, 25 mAs; group 2 = 100 kVp, 15 mAs; group 3 = 120 kVp, 5 mAs; and group 4 = 100 kVp, 5 mAs. Two radiologists and two physicians analyzed both the standard CT and ultra-LDCT. Results: The effective doses (EDs) of ultra-LDCT significantly differed among the four groups (median EDs were 0.88, 0.34, 0.19, and 0.12 mSv for groups 1–4, respectively; p < 0.001). Median differences in peripheral airway wall thickness were higher in group 4 than in other groups (differences in median wall thickness measured by two radiologists were 0.4–0.5 mm and 0.8–0.9 mm for groups 1–3 and group 4, respectively). Bronchus signs on ultra-LDCT in groups 1 and 2 were well correlated with those of the standard-dose CT (accuracies of two radiologists and two pulmonary physicians were 95–100%). Conclusions: Our results indicate that ultra-LDCT with ED of >0.34 mSv (ED of group 2) is feasible for peripheral bronchoscopy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Flexible Bronchoscopy in Diagnosing Pulmonary Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Systematic Analysis of Cold Stress Response and Diurnal Rhythm Using Transcriptome Data in Rice Reveals the Molecular Networks Related to Various Biological Processes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(18), 6872; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21186872 (registering DOI) - 19 Sep 2020
Abstract
Rice (Oryza sativa L.), a staple crop plant that is a major source of calories for approximately 50% of the human population, exhibits various physiological responses against temperature stress. These responses are known mechanisms of flexible adaptation through crosstalk with the intrinsic [...] Read more.
Rice (Oryza sativa L.), a staple crop plant that is a major source of calories for approximately 50% of the human population, exhibits various physiological responses against temperature stress. These responses are known mechanisms of flexible adaptation through crosstalk with the intrinsic circadian clock. However, the molecular regulatory network underlining this crosstalk remains poorly understood. Therefore, we performed systematic transcriptome data analyses to identify the genes involved in both cold stress responses and diurnal rhythmic patterns. Here, we first identified cold-regulated genes and then identified diurnal rhythmic genes from those (119 cold-upregulated and 346 cold-downregulated genes). We defined cold-responsive diurnal rhythmic genes as CD genes. We further analyzed the functional features of these CD genes through Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analyses and performed a literature search to identify functionally characterized CD genes. Subsequently, we found that light-harvesting complex proteins involved in photosynthesis strongly associate with the crosstalk. Furthermore, we constructed a protein–protein interaction network encompassing four hub genes and analyzed the roles of the Stay-Green (SGR) gene in regulating crosstalk with sgr mutants. We predict that these findings will provide new insights in understanding the environmental stress response of crop plants against climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Responses and Tolerance to Temperature Changes)
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Open AccessReview
Keeping in Touch with Type-III Secretion System Effectors: Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics to Study Effector–Host Protein–Protein Interactions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(18), 6891; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21186891 (registering DOI) - 19 Sep 2020
Abstract
Manipulation of host cellular processes by translocated bacterial effectors is key to the success of bacterial pathogens and some symbionts. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of effectors is of critical importance to understand infection biology. It has become increasingly clear that the identification of [...] Read more.
Manipulation of host cellular processes by translocated bacterial effectors is key to the success of bacterial pathogens and some symbionts. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of effectors is of critical importance to understand infection biology. It has become increasingly clear that the identification of host protein targets contributes invaluable knowledge to the characterization of effector function during pathogenesis. Recent advances in mapping protein–protein interaction networks by means of mass spectrometry-based interactomics have enabled the identification of host targets at large-scale. In this review, we highlight mass spectrometry-driven proteomics strategies and recent advances to elucidate type-III secretion system effector–host protein–protein interactions. Furthermore, we highlight approaches for defining spatial and temporal effector–host interactions, and discuss possible avenues for studying natively delivered effectors in the context of infection. Overall, the knowledge gained when unravelling effector complexation with host factors will provide novel opportunities to control infectious disease outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host–Pathogen Interaction 2.0)
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Open AccessArticle
Achieving High Yield Strength and Ductility in As-Extruded Mg-0.5Sr Alloy by High Mn–Alloying
Materials 2020, 13(18), 4176; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13184176 (registering DOI) - 19 Sep 2020
Abstract
The effect of Mn on the microstructure and mechanical properties of as-extruded Mg-0.5Sr alloy were discussed in this work. The results showed that high Mn alloying (2 wt.%) could significantly improve the mechanical properties of the alloys, namely, the tensile and compressive yield [...] Read more.
The effect of Mn on the microstructure and mechanical properties of as-extruded Mg-0.5Sr alloy were discussed in this work. The results showed that high Mn alloying (2 wt.%) could significantly improve the mechanical properties of the alloys, namely, the tensile and compressive yield strength. The grain size of as-extruded Mg-0.5Sr alloys significantly was refined from 2.78 μm to 1.15 μm due to the pinning effect by fine α-Mn precipitates during the extrusion. Moreover we showed that the tensile yield strength and the compressive yield strength of Mg-0.5Sr-2Mn alloy were 32 and 40 percent age higher than those of Mg-0.5Sr alloy, respectively. Moreover, the strain hardening behaviors of the Mg-0.5Sr-2Mn alloy were discussed, which proved that a large number of small grains and texture have an important role in improving mechanical properties. Full article
Open AccessReview
Microbial Exopolysaccharides as Drug Carriers
Polymers 2020, 12(9), 2142; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12092142 (registering DOI) - 19 Sep 2020
Abstract
Microbial exopolysaccharides are peculiar polymers that are produced by living organisms and protect them against environmental factors. These polymers are industrially recovered from the medium culture after performing a fermentative process. These materials are biocompatible and biodegradable, possessing specific and beneficial properties for [...] Read more.
Microbial exopolysaccharides are peculiar polymers that are produced by living organisms and protect them against environmental factors. These polymers are industrially recovered from the medium culture after performing a fermentative process. These materials are biocompatible and biodegradable, possessing specific and beneficial properties for biomedical drug delivery systems. They can have antitumor activity, they can produce hydrogels with different characteristics due to their molecular structure and functional groups, and they can even produce nanoparticles via a self-assembly phenomenon. This review studies the potential use of exopolysaccharides as carriers for drug delivery systems, covering their versatility and their vast possibilities to produce particles, fibers, scaffolds, hydrogels, and aerogels with different strategies and methodologies. Moreover, the main properties of exopolysaccharides are explained, providing information to achieve an adequate carrier selection depending on the final application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers and Drug Delivery Systems)
Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of VEGETATION and PROBA-V Phenology Using PhenoCam and Eddy Covariance Data
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(18), 3077; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12183077 (registering DOI) - 19 Sep 2020
Abstract
High-quality retrieval of land surface phenology (LSP) is increasingly important for understanding the effects of climate change on ecosystem function and biosphere–atmosphere interactions. We analyzed four state-of-the-art phenology methods: threshold, logistic-function, moving-average and first derivative based approaches, and retrieved LSP in the North [...] Read more.
High-quality retrieval of land surface phenology (LSP) is increasingly important for understanding the effects of climate change on ecosystem function and biosphere–atmosphere interactions. We analyzed four state-of-the-art phenology methods: threshold, logistic-function, moving-average and first derivative based approaches, and retrieved LSP in the North Hemisphere for the period 1999–2017 from Copernicus Global Land Service (CGLS) SPOT-VEGETATION and PROBA-V leaf area index (LAI) 1km V2.0 time series. We validated the LSP estimates with near-surface PhenoCam and eddy covariance FLUXNET data over 80 sites of deciduous forests. Results showed a strong correlation (R2 > 0.7) between the satellite LSP and ground-based observations from both PhenoCam and FLUXNET for the timing of the start (SoS) and R2 > 0.5 for the end of season (EoS). The threshold-based method performed the best with a root mean square error of ~9 d with PhenoCam and ~7 d with FLUXNET for the timing of SoS (30th percentile of the annual amplitude), and ~12 d and ~10 d, respectively, for the timing of EoS (40th percentile). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Implication of Membrane Androgen Receptor (ZIP9) in Cell Senescence in Regressed Testes of the Bank Vole
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(18), 6888; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21186888 (registering DOI) - 19 Sep 2020
Abstract
Here, we studied the impact of exposure to short daylight conditions on the expression of senescence marker (p16), membrane androgen receptor (ZIP9) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK 1/2), as well as cyclic AMP (cAMP) and testosterone levels in the testes of mature bank [...] Read more.
Here, we studied the impact of exposure to short daylight conditions on the expression of senescence marker (p16), membrane androgen receptor (ZIP9) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK 1/2), as well as cyclic AMP (cAMP) and testosterone levels in the testes of mature bank voles. Animals were assigned to groups based on an analysis of testis diameter, weight, seminiferous tubule diameter and the interstitial tissue area: group 1, not fully regressed (the highest parameters); group 2 (medium parameters); or group 3, regressed (the lowest parameters). Cells positive for p16 were observed only in the seminiferous tubule epithelium. However, in groups 1 and 2, these were mostly cells sloughed into the tubule lumen. In group 3, senescent cells resided in between cells of the seminiferous epithelium. Staining for ZIP9 was found in Sertoli cells. Western blot analysis showed a trend towards a decreased expression of p16 and ZIP9 in the testes of the voles in groups 2 and 3, compared to group 1. In addition, a trend towards an increased expression of ERK, as well as an increase of cAMP and testosterone levels, was revealed in group 2. In the regressed testes, a functional link exists between senescence and androgen levels with implication of ZIP9 and cAMP/ERK signaling pathways. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Vancomycin for Dialytic Therapy in Critically Ill Patients: Analysis of Its Reduction and the Factors Associated with Subtherapeutic Concentrations
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6861; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186861 (registering DOI) - 19 Sep 2020
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the reduction in vancomycin through intermittent haemodialysis (IHD) and prolonged haemodialysis (PHD) in acute kidney injury (AKI) patients with sepsis and to identify the variables associated with subtherapeutic concentrations. A prospective study was performed in patients admitted at [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the reduction in vancomycin through intermittent haemodialysis (IHD) and prolonged haemodialysis (PHD) in acute kidney injury (AKI) patients with sepsis and to identify the variables associated with subtherapeutic concentrations. A prospective study was performed in patients admitted at an intensive care unit (ICU) of a Brazilian hospital. Blood samples were collected at the start of dialytic therapy, after 2 and 4 h of treatment and at the end of therapy to determine the serum concentration of vancomycin and thus perform pharmacokinetic evaluation and PK/PD modelling. Twenty-seven patients treated with IHD, 17 treated with PHD for 6 h and 11 treated with PHD for 10 h were included. The reduction in serum concentrations of vancomycin after 2 h of therapy was 26.65 ± 12.64% and at the end of dialysis was 45.78 ± 12.79%, higher in the 10-h PHD group, 57.70% (40, 48–64, 30%) (p = 0.037). The ratio of the area under the curve to minimal inhibitory concentration (AUC/MIC) at 24 h in the PHD group was significantly smaller than at 10 h (p = 0.047). In the logistic regression, PHD was a risk factor for an AUC/MIC ratio less than 400 (OR = 11.59, p = 0.033), while a higher serum concentration of vancomycin at T0 was a protective factor (OR = 0.791, p = 0.009). In conclusion, subtherapeutic concentrations of vancomycin in acute kidney injury (AKI) patients in dialysis were elevated and may be related to a higher risk of bacterial resistance and mortality, besides pointing out the necessity of additional doses of vancomycin during dialytic therapy, mainly in PHD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Infectious Disease Epidemiology)
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Open AccessReview
Marine Cyanobacteria and Microalgae Metabolites—A Rich Source of Potential Anticancer Drugs
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(9), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18090476 (registering DOI) - 19 Sep 2020
Abstract
Cancer is at present one of the utmost deadly diseases worldwide. Past efforts in cancer research have focused on natural medicinal products. Over the past decades, a great deal of initiatives was invested towards isolating and identifying new marine metabolites via pharmaceutical companies, [...] Read more.
Cancer is at present one of the utmost deadly diseases worldwide. Past efforts in cancer research have focused on natural medicinal products. Over the past decades, a great deal of initiatives was invested towards isolating and identifying new marine metabolites via pharmaceutical companies, and research institutions in general. Secondary marine metabolites are looked at as a favorable source of potentially new pharmaceutically active compounds, having a vast structural diversity and diverse biological activities; therefore, this is an astonishing source of potentially new anticancer therapy. This review contains an extensive critical discussion on the potential of marine microbial compounds and marine microalgae metabolites as anticancer drugs, highlighting their chemical structure and exploring the underlying mechanisms of action. Current limitation, challenges, and future research pathways were also presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine-Derived Products for Biomedicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Cell-Penetrable Peptide-Conjugated FADD Induces Apoptosis and Regulates Inflammatory Signaling in Cancer Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(18), 6890; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21186890 (registering DOI) - 19 Sep 2020
Abstract
Dysregulated expression of Fas-associated death domain (FADD) is associated with the impediment of various cellular pathways, including apoptosis and inflammation. The adequate cytosolic expression of FADD is critical to the regulation of cancer cell proliferation. Importantly, cancer cells devise mechanisms to suppress FADD [...] Read more.
Dysregulated expression of Fas-associated death domain (FADD) is associated with the impediment of various cellular pathways, including apoptosis and inflammation. The adequate cytosolic expression of FADD is critical to the regulation of cancer cell proliferation. Importantly, cancer cells devise mechanisms to suppress FADD expression and, in turn, escape from apoptosis signaling. Formulating strategies, for direct delivery of FADD proteins into cancer cells in a controlled manner, may represent a promising therapeutic approach in cancer therapy. We chemically conjugated purified FADD protein with cell permeable TAT (transactivator of transcription) peptide, to deliver in cancer cells. TAT-conjugated FADD protein internalized through the caveolar pathway of endocytosis and retained in the cytosol to augment cell death. Inside cancer cells, TAT-FADD rapidly constituted DISC (death inducing signaling complex) assembly, which in turn, instigate apoptosis signaling. The apoptotic competency of TAT-FADD showed comparable outcomes with the conventional apoptosis inducers. Notably, TAT-FADD mitigates constitutive NF-κB activation and associated downstream anti-apoptotic genes Bcl2, cFLIPL, RIP1, and cIAP2, independent of pro-cancerous TNFα priming. In cancer cells, TAT-FADD suppresses the canonical NLRP3 inflammasome priming and restricts the processing and secretion of proinflammatory IL-1β. Our results demonstrate that TAT-mediated intracellular delivery of FADD protein can potentially recite apoptosis signaling with simultaneous regulation of anti-apoptotic and proinflammatory NF-κB signaling activation in cancer cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Prediction of Leaf Wetness Duration Using Geostationary Satellite Observations and Machine Learning Algorithms
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(18), 3076; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12183076 (registering DOI) - 19 Sep 2020
Abstract
Leaf wetness duration (LWD) and plant diseases are strongly associated with each other. Therefore, LWD is a critical ecological variable for plant disease risk assessment. However, LWD is rarely used in the analysis of plant disease epidemiology and risk assessment because it is [...] Read more.
Leaf wetness duration (LWD) and plant diseases are strongly associated with each other. Therefore, LWD is a critical ecological variable for plant disease risk assessment. However, LWD is rarely used in the analysis of plant disease epidemiology and risk assessment because it is a non-standard meteorological variable. The application of satellite observations may facilitate the prediction of LWD as they may represent important related parameters and are particularly useful for meteorologically ungauged locations. In this study, the applicability of geostationary satellite observations for LWD prediction was investigated. GEO-KOMPSAT-2A satellite observations were used as inputs and six machine learning (ML) algorithms were employed to arrive at hourly LW predictions. The performances of these models were compared with that of a physical model through systematic evaluation. Results indicated that the LWD could be predicted using satellite observations and ML. A random forest model exhibited larger accuracy (0.82) than that of the physical model (0.79) in leaf wetness prediction. The performance of the proposed approach was comparable to that of the physical model in predicting LWD. Overall, the artificial intelligence (AI) models exhibited good performances in predicting LWD in South Korea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Estimating Meteorological Variables by Remote Sensing Data)
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Open AccessReview
Urinary Biomarkers for Diagnosis and Prediction of Acute Kidney Allograft Rejection: A Systematic Review
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(18), 6889; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21186889 (registering DOI) - 19 Sep 2020
Abstract
Noninvasive tools for diagnosis or prediction of acute kidney allograft rejection have been extensively investigated in recent years. Biochemical and molecular analyses of blood and urine provide a liquid biopsy that could offer new possibilities for rejection prevention, monitoring, and therefore, treatment. Nevertheless, [...] Read more.
Noninvasive tools for diagnosis or prediction of acute kidney allograft rejection have been extensively investigated in recent years. Biochemical and molecular analyses of blood and urine provide a liquid biopsy that could offer new possibilities for rejection prevention, monitoring, and therefore, treatment. Nevertheless, these tools are not yet available for routine use in clinical practice. In this systematic review, MEDLINE was searched for articles assessing urinary biomarkers for diagnosis or prediction of kidney allograft acute rejection published in the last five years (from January 1, 2015 to May 31, 2020). This review follows the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Articles providing targeted or unbiased urine sample analysis for the diagnosis or prediction of both acute cellular and antibody-mediated kidney allograft rejection were included, analyzed, and graded for methodological quality with a particular focus on study design and diagnostic test accuracy measures. Urinary C-X-C motif chemokine ligands were the most promising and frequently studied biomarkers. The combination of precise diagnostic reference in training sets with accurate validation in real-life cohorts provided the most relevant results and exciting groundwork for future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers of Renal Diseases)
Open AccessArticle
Adenosine Receptor Ligands: Coumarin–Chalcone Hybrids as Modulating Agents on the Activity of hARs
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4306; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184306 (registering DOI) - 19 Sep 2020
Abstract
Adenosine receptors (ARs) play an important role in neurological and psychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy and schizophrenia. The different subtypes of ARs and the knowledge on their densities and status are important for understanding the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis [...] Read more.
Adenosine receptors (ARs) play an important role in neurological and psychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy and schizophrenia. The different subtypes of ARs and the knowledge on their densities and status are important for understanding the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of diseases and for developing new therapeutics. Looking for new scaffolds for selective AR ligands, coumarin–chalcone hybrids were synthesized (compounds 18) and screened in radioligand binding (hA1, hA2A and hA3) and adenylyl cyclase (hA2B) assays in order to evaluate their affinity for the four human AR subtypes (hARs). Coumarin–chalcone hybrid has been established as a new scaffold suitable for the development of potent and selective ligands for hA1 or hA3 subtypes. In general, hydroxy-substituted hybrids showed some affinity for the hA1, while the methoxy counterparts were selective for the hA3. The most potent hA1 ligand was compound 7 (Ki = 17.7 µM), whereas compound 4 was the most potent ligand for hA3 (Ki = 2.49 µM). In addition, docking studies with hA1 and hA3 homology models were established to analyze the structure–function relationships. Results showed that the different residues located on the protein binding pocket could play an important role in ligand selectivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coumarin and Its Derivatives)
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Open AccessReview
Microwave-Assisted Pyrolysis of Biomass Waste: A Mini Review
Processes 2020, 8(9), 1190; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8091190 (registering DOI) - 19 Sep 2020
Abstract
The utilization of biomass waste as a raw material for renewable energy is a global concern. Pyrolysis is one of the thermal treatments for biomass wastes that results in the production of liquid, solid and gaseous products. Unfortunately, the complex structure of the [...] Read more.
The utilization of biomass waste as a raw material for renewable energy is a global concern. Pyrolysis is one of the thermal treatments for biomass wastes that results in the production of liquid, solid and gaseous products. Unfortunately, the complex structure of the biomass materials matrix needs elevated heating to convert these materials into useful products. Microwave heating is a promising alternative to conventional heating approaches. Recently, it has been widely used in pyrolysis due to easy operation and its high heating rate. This review tries to identify the microwave-assisted pyrolysis treatment process fundamentals and discusses various key operating parameters which have an effect on product yield. It was found that several operating parameters govern this process such as microwave power and the degree of temperature, microwave absorber addition and its concentration, initial moisture content, initial sweep gas flow rate/residence time. Moreover, this study highlighted the most attractive products of the microwave pyrolysis process. These products include synthesis gas, bio-char, and bio-oil. The benefits and challenges of microwave heating are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Green Processes)
Open AccessArticle
Fused Deposition Modeling of Microfluidic Chips in Polymethylmethacrylate
Micromachines 2020, 11(9), 873; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11090873 (registering DOI) - 19 Sep 2020
Abstract
Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is one of the most important thermoplastic materials and is a widely used material in microfluidics. However, PMMA is usually structured using industrial scale replication processes, such as hot embossing or injection molding, not compatible with rapid prototyping. In this work, [...] Read more.
Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is one of the most important thermoplastic materials and is a widely used material in microfluidics. However, PMMA is usually structured using industrial scale replication processes, such as hot embossing or injection molding, not compatible with rapid prototyping. In this work, we demonstrate that microfluidic chips made from PMMA can be 3D printed using fused deposition modeling (FDM). We demonstrate that using FDM microfluidic chips with a minimum channel cross-section of ~300 µm can be printed and a variety of different channel geometries and mixer structures are shown. The optical transparency of the chips is shown to be significantly enhanced by printing onto commercial PMMA substrates. The use of such commercial PMMA substrates also enables the integration of PMMA microstructures into the printed chips, by first generating a microstructure on the PMMA substrates, and subsequently printing the PMMA chip around the microstructure. We further demonstrate that protein patterns can be generated within previously printed microfluidic chips by employing a method of photobleaching. The FDM printing of microfluidic chips in PMMA allows the use of one of microfluidics’ most used industrial materials on the laboratory scale and thus significantly simplifies the transfer from results gained in the lab to an industrial product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing of MEMS Technology)
Open AccessArticle
Passive Forward-Scattering Radar Using Digital Video Broadcasting Satellite Signal for Drone Detection
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(18), 3075; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12183075 (registering DOI) - 19 Sep 2020
Abstract
This paper presents a passive radar system using a signal of opportunity from Digital Video Broadcasting Satellite (DVB-S). The ultimate purpose of the system is to be used as an air traffic monitoring and surveillance system. However, the work focuses on drone detection [...] Read more.
This paper presents a passive radar system using a signal of opportunity from Digital Video Broadcasting Satellite (DVB-S). The ultimate purpose of the system is to be used as an air traffic monitoring and surveillance system. However, the work focuses on drone detection as a proof of the concept. Detecting a drone by using satellite-based passive radar possess inherent challenges, such as the small radar cross section and low speed. Therefore, this paper proposes a unique method by leveraging the advantage of forward-scattering radar (FSR) topology and characteristics to detect a drone; in other words, the system is known as a passive FSR (p-FSR) system. In the signal-processing algorithm, the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is applied to the received signal to extract the unique feature vector of the micro-Doppler frequency from the drone’s rotating blades. The paper highlights the p-FSR experimental setup and experiment campaign to detect drones. The experimental results show the feasibility of the p-FSR using a signal transmitted from a satellite to detect flying drone crossing the forward-scatter baseline between the satellite and ground station. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Dysregulated Autophagy Mediates Sarcopenic Obesity and Its Complications via AMPK and PGC1α Signaling Pathways: Potential Involvement of Gut Dysbiosis as a Pathological Link
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(18), 6887; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21186887 (registering DOI) - 19 Sep 2020
Abstract
Sarcopenic obesity (SOB), which is closely related to being elderly as a feature of aging, is recently gaining attention because it is associated with many other age-related diseases that present as altered intercellular communication, dysregulated nutrient sensing, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Along with insulin [...] Read more.
Sarcopenic obesity (SOB), which is closely related to being elderly as a feature of aging, is recently gaining attention because it is associated with many other age-related diseases that present as altered intercellular communication, dysregulated nutrient sensing, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Along with insulin resistance and inflammation as the core pathogenesis of SOB, autophagy has recently gained attention as a significant mechanism of muscle aging in SOB. Known as important cellular metabolic regulators, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) signaling pathways play an important role in autophagy, inflammation, and insulin resistance, as well as mutual communication between skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and the liver. Furthermore, AMPK and PGC-1α signaling pathways are implicated in the gut microbiome–muscle axis. In this review, we describe the pathological link between SOB and its associated complications such as metabolic, cardiovascular, and liver disease, falls and fractures, osteoarthritis, pulmonary disease, and mental health via dysregulated autophagy controlled by AMPK and/or PGC-1α signaling pathways. Here, we propose potential treatments for SOB by modulating autophagy activity and gut dysbiosis based on plausible pathological links. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sarcopenic Obesity: Mechanisms and Countermeasures)
Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Perceptual Interactions among Aldehydes in a Cheddar Cheese Matrix According to Odor Threshold and Aroma Intensity
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4308; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184308 (registering DOI) - 19 Sep 2020
Abstract
To evaluate the contributions of 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanal, 2-methylpropanal, and benzaldehyde in cheddar cheese models, the threshold values, optimal concentration ranges, and perceptual actions of these compounds were determined at various concentrations. The thresholds for 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanal, 2-methylpropanal, and benzaldehyde in the cheese matrix [...] Read more.
To evaluate the contributions of 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanal, 2-methylpropanal, and benzaldehyde in cheddar cheese models, the threshold values, optimal concentration ranges, and perceptual actions of these compounds were determined at various concentrations. The thresholds for 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanal, 2-methylpropanal, and benzaldehyde in the cheese matrix were 150.31, 175.39, 150.66, and 500.21 μg/kg, respectively, which were significantly higher than the corresponding values in water. The optimal concentration ranges of these aldehydes were determined as 150–300, 175–325, 150–350, and 500–1500 μg/kg, respectively. Based on the results of the threshold method and Feller’s model, five binary mixtures were found to have synergistic effects, and only the pair of 2-methylpropanal and benzaldehyde was determined to have a masking effect. In addition, the synergistic olfactory effects between the four ternary mixtures and the quaternary mixture of these aldehydes were also assesSsed using Feller’s model. In a σ-τ plot analysis, synergism was usually observed when these odor pairs were at their threshold levels. In summary, the results suggested that perceptual interactions among these aldehydes exist in a cheese model variably with different concentrations and threshold ratios. This study will be helpful to a further understanding of the nutty aroma and improving the aroma quality of cheddar cheese. Full article
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